The word Asbestos has been firstly used by Pliny the Elder, 1 century BC. But its properties have been used before. Egyptians used to create sanctuaries thanks to asbestos fibres.
During 1900, because of its exceptional qualities asbestos has been used in shipyards and clothes industry. Between 1906 and 1907, the first lung fribosis case has been discovered. The study of Mr. Aribault highlighted the particularity of pneumoconiosis and its consequences over the workers’ health : 50 death in 5 years between 1890 and 1895. During the « Glorious Thirty », asbestos has been spread without any knowledge of its consequences on health.
Asbestos is considered as carcinogenic. The inhalation of the fibres or the asbestos dust can be at the origin of injuries such as lung cancer, larynx cancer…
The use of asbestos has only been forbidden on January 1st, 1997 thanks to the order 96-1133 of December 24th, 1996. This order is about the prohibition of asbestos. France has the objective to remove asbestos within 4 years. The decree of December 12th, 2012, demands a certification for companies of withdrawal. The decree of August 14th, 2012, plans the control of the exposure limit value. The decree of April 8th and March 7th, 2013, plans collective protection measures and personal protection equipments. Since July 19th 2019, asbestos tracking before work is a standard for individuals and professionals.
The exposure limit value during over 8 hours is 10 fibres per litres. The public exposure shall not exceed 5 fibres per litres.
Produced during transformation, wood processing and transport operations, wood dust can be inhaled by workers exposed to it. In France, those most at risk are the building industry workers. Today, around 500.000 people have already been exposed to wood dust.
Wood dust have been classified as carcinogenic by the International Cancer Reasearch Center. The wood dust is known for being the second cause of cancer due to work.
The articles 4.4412-149 and R. 4222-10 to R.4222-20 of the Labour Code rule the wood dust exposure time. These articles require an air recycling in specific pollution areas.
The professional exposure limit value over 8 hours is 1mg per cubic metre. The verification of compliance with exposure limit is done at least once a year by authorized organization.
Refractory Ceramic fibres are produced by fusion of alumina oxide and silica.
Classified as carcinogenic 1B, they are at the origin of mechanical inflammations, of dermatitis inflammations, of a risk of degradation of the respiratory system, and they also are at the origin of the appearance of pleural blemished.
The decree of Mai 30th, 2018 concerning the verification of compliance with exposure limit of the refractory ceramic fibres came into effect on July 1st, 2018. This decree takes into account the NF X43-269 standard.
The article R.4412-149 of the Labour Code rules the refractory ceramic fibre time exposure. The exposure limit value over 8 hours is 0.1 fibre per cubic centimetres.
Used since Antiquity, lead is very resistant to corrosion. It has long served to manufacturing of waterpipe and as a pigment despite its toxicity.
The risk of exposure depends on the mode of intervention. Lead could penetrate the body thought the nose or the mouth. This could have consequences on the nervous system, on kidney, on the digestive system or on the reproductive system. Workers exposed to lead would be less than 110,000. They are mostly working in the building industry and the handicraft industry.
The articles R.4412-149 and R.4412-152 of the Labour Code rule the lead time exposure and the biologic limit not to exceed. The articles from R.4412-149 to R.4412-152 of the Labour Code highlight the hygiene measures to be applied.
The exposure limit over 8 hours is 0.1 mg per cubic metre. The biologic limit not to exceed is 400 µg per blood litre for the men and 300 µg per blood litre for women. Moreover, workers should have separate cloakroom for their daily clothes and their work clothes. These cloakroom must be separated by showers.
Dust without specific effects are defined as dust that has no other impact than a lung overload. These dust are considered dust without specific effect because of the lack of proof regarding their health consequences.
The accumulation of dust inhaled in the lung could be at the origin of a lung overlead. It could be the beginning of chronic disease or progressives disorders. The legal notice of november 19th, 2019 suggests to lower the exposure limit value. The exposure limit over 8 hours is 10 mg per cubic metre.
The crystalline silica is a mineral presents in the earth curst. The most frequent types are : quartz which is the most common one, cristobalite and finally tridymite.
- The quartz is part of most rock types
- The cristobalite is part of volcanic rocks and bentonite.
- The tridymite is more rare than the two other
The crystalline silica is considered carcinogenic and could be at the origin of bronchopulmonary cancer. Around 365,000 workers are exposed to it. More specifically in the building industry, the manufacturing industry, the equipment repairs and installations, in the metalworking industry, the rubber production and other mineral production industries.
The articles R.4412-149 and R.2212-1 to R.4412-57 of the Labour Code, rule the exposure limit value and safety measures to be respected. Finally, the order 2013-797 of August 30th, 2013 and the decree of November 4th, 2013 set additional measures regarding the workers safety.
The verification of compliance with exposure limit is set 0,1 mg per cubic metre over 8 hours for the quartz and 0,5mg per cubic metre for the cristobalite and the tridymite.